Glossary

ABRASION
Paint resistance to the friction of scraping materials.

ABRASIVE
Type of material which is able to take off a very thin layer of a surface materiale by friction; useful to prepare the rough wood or to smooth the primer.

ADHESION
Paint property to create a solid body with the support.

APPLICABILITY
Possibility to use a varnish in different way of application.

BIOCIDES
Product designed to defend the wood from micro-organism attack.

BRIGHTNESS
Paint property to reflect the light (see gloss).

CLOSE-PORE
Type of paint application which close completely the pores.

CURTAIN - COATER
Equipment to apply paint usually on a plane objet which is running under the curtain.

DILUENT
Specific product to add to the paint in order to improve flow and drying properties.

DILUTION
Ratio normally indicated as percentage of thinners on paints (weight or volume) to obtain the better viscosity.

DRYING
Evaporation of the volatile part of the paint. It can be obtained in different ways (air, heating, U.V. lamps, I.R. rays).

DUST-FREE
Paint film doesn't captured anymore the dust.

ELASTICITY
The paint doesn't crack under mechanical and thermic stress and it comes back to the original status once the stress is over.

FINISHING
Last coat or top-coat in the application cycle.

FISH-EYES
When the paint leaves uncovered some surfaces areas.

FLOW-COATING
Alternative application in front of deeping. This application is made by "rain flux".

FUNGICIDE
Wood protection against fungi.

GLOSS
Criterion to measure the matt grade of the paint film.

GOING ROUND (OF THE PORE)
Paint is not able to flow perfectly and it forms edges around the wooden pores.

GR/SQM
Grams per square-mater of applied paint.

HARDENER RATIO
To obtain the best cross-linking between varnish and hardener (expressed in weight or volume).

HARDENING
Chemical reaction between two products.

HARDNESS (OF SURFACE)
Paint property to resist to scratch, impact, and similar factors.

IMPREGNANTE
Paint penetras into the wood without film forming.

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MATT
Very low light reflection (see gloss).

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OPEN-PORE
Type of paint application which doesn't close the pores, leaving the wooden structure visible.

OUT-DOOR RESISTANCE
Paint film resistance to atmospheric effect (sun-light, water, humidity, etc...).

OVEN
To dry the paint using high temperature.

PAINTING
Tinting by stain to give the desired colour to the wood; _ Applying one or more coats of sealer or primer; _ Sanding; _ Applying top-coat, trasparent or coloured, matt or glossy. Different ways of application are possible:

PEELING
Easy removal of paint film.

PHOTO-STABILITY
Sun-light resistance of paint film.

PIGMENTS
Coloured substances used in the paints to obtain the desired colour.

POLISHING
To clean the paint film surface by scrubber.

POT-LIFE
Cross-linking limit time before the paint turns to a solid form.

PRIMER
First coat on the surface with very good adhesion.

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REMOVAL
Mugging and wrinkling action of the top-coat on the sealer.

RETARDANT
Product which retard the drying time, helping the flow of the paint film.

ROOM HUMIDITY
Should be between 40 - 70%.

SANDING
The use of sand-paper or other abrasive material to prepare the surface where the paint has to be applied. Operation between two coats.

SAND-PAPER
Product designed to smooth the support or the paint film. It is a paper sheet with a different size grains. Every type is identified by a number which means the mesh per square-inch of the sieve.

SEALER
Close the wooden pores. It allows sanding without changing the wood colour. It helps adhesion of the other coats. It can be made in one or two components. With a solid content of 40% it has high coverage; medium-high coverage is obtained with 35 - 40% solid.

SILVERING
White-silver spotted which are caused by a bad adhesion of paint on the wood pores.

SOLVENT
Product used to cut down the viscosity of the paint.

STACKING
Drying time to stack the coated material avoiding surfaces to stick each other.

SURFACING
To come out of one or more components on the surface during drying.

THYXOTROPY
Paint property to stay on a vertical surface without cooling.

TOUCH-FREE
Paint film is not anymore sticky.

TRANSPARENCY
Paint property to let visible the surface structure.

UNCOMPATIBILITY
Different products which are not mixable. Also related to dry film.

VISCOSITY
Fluency of the paint, measured by a viscous-meter named "Cup Ford". Cup Ford is a specific container with a volume of 100 cubic centimetre and a small hole in the bottom. The viscosity is done by the time the paint goes out from the hole, at 20°C.

WHITENING (OF THE WOOD)
When you want to make more white the wood using ammonia or hydrogen peroxide. This operation is made in order to have more uniform surface hiding natural defects of the wood.

WOODEN MOISTURE
On the wood surface, the moisture has to be 8 - 14%.

WRINKLING
Wrinkles on paint film due to a short drying time on surface.

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YELLOWING RESISTANCE
To maintain the original paint colour even after long time light exposure.

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In depth

Here you will find some very useful insights on how best to use our products . Click on the headings to show / hide the description.

DEFECTS DURING THE APPLICATION

BAD DRYING

When the drying time is not the desired one.
The main factors are:

1)Temperature
2) Quantity of applied paint
3) Hardening
4) Vapour solvent concentration
5) Support (wrong or cold or dirty)

CAUSE:
1) Panel too cold (below 18°C);
2) Wooden moisture too high (over 14%);
3) Natural wood substances (specially in exotic wood);
4) Presence of retardant products;
5) Low surface temperature.

REMEDY:
1) Heat the panel;
2) Dry the wood and/or apply insulator;
3) Apply one or more coats of insulator.

BUBBLES

Air into the paint film due to spray application or slow solvent evaporation.

CAUSE:
1) High room temperature or paint film too thick.(when the film is "closing" the upper side the solvent stay inside and creates bubbles;
2) Too high viscosity (bad solvent release);
3) Use of cheap thinner;
4) Forced air after application too strong.

REMEDY:
1) Reduce paint applied. Add thinner to slow down the drying time;
2) Cut viscosity with correct thinner;
3) Use correct quality of thinner;
4) Slow down the forced air and (if possible) use right thinner.

THICKENING

Paint viscosity increase after mixing other component.

CAUSE:
1) Wrong hardener;
2) Wrong hardening ratio;
3) Over pot-life time (see technical data sheets);
4) High temperature.

REMEDY:
1) Change hardener;
2) Follow carefully technical data sheets instruction;
3) The paint is not anymore applicable;
4) Add thinner to improve pot-life (use slow thinner).

WETTING

The paint isn't wetting the wood.

CAUSE:
1) Paint not designed on that wood type;
2) Too high viscosity (spray and curtain).

REMEDY:
1) Change product;
2) Dilute properly.

WRAPPING UP

The paint doesn't cover properly the back of the objet durign electrostatic application.

CAUSE:
1) Bad conductivity;
2) Too high conductivity;
3) Solvent mix too fast (fast evaporation during spray);
4) Too high viscosity;
5) Too low humidity of the objet (below 10%);
6) Too high room humidity (over 90%);
7) Bad electrostatic equipment.

REMEDY:
1) Use additives to improve conductivity;
2) Change paint;
3) Use retardant thinner;
4) Reduce viscosity by thinner;
5) Treat the wood to get the right humidity (10 - 40%);
6) Reduce humidity in the hair (air-condition);
7) Check with the equipment supplier.

DEFECTS ON THE DRY FILM

PINE-HOLES

Paint film defect because of dust or micro air-bubbles (easy to get after sanding the sealer or in matt-finish after drying).

CAUSE:
1) Too much paint applied in one coat. (the air cannot comes out easy);
2) Too fast drying because of thinners (fast cross-linking);
3) Using cheap thinners which contains impurities.

REMEDY:
1) Reduce quantitaty of applied paint;
2) Use slow dry thinner so the air can easy goes out;
3) Use the suggested thinners (see technical data sheets).

REMOVAL

Paint film swelling due to a solvent attack.

CAUSE:
1) Sealer not fully dried;
2) Sealer has not good adhesion on support.

REMEDY:
1) Verify all factors playing on the drying of paint film;
2) Verify all factors playing on adhesion of sealer on the wood.

SILVERING

Usually this defect appears after some days. More evident on dark wood. It involves the pores because the paint has not enough wetting properties and it appears a silver-tone near by the pores.

CAUSE:
1) Negative reaction between natural wood substances and paint (often polyester based) Silvering appears near by the pores;
2) Poor paint wetting of the pores (specially on hard wood);
3) Humidity of the pores with poor paint wetting.

REMEDY:
1) Apply an insulator in advance in ordere to have a barrier between wood and paint;
2) Apply insulator to wet the pores or change sealer;
3) Heat the panel in order to evacuate the humidity.

WHITENING

White haziness of the paint film which looses transparency.

CAUSE:
1) Strong room humidity. The problem happens more with nitro-varnishes because of a condensation of humidity on the panel. The condensation is due to a panel temperature because of a fast solvent evaporation;
2) In the polyurethane system the whitening could come from:- wrong hardener;- not compatible hardener; - too high film thickness;
3) High moisture into the wood or too much glue which is not compatible with paint.

REMEDY:
1) Use air-conditioned into the room. Use slower solvent;
2) Sand as you reach the wood (or use a remover), than re-paint the manufact;
3) The product on a surface with the right humidity. Sand as you reach wood. Before re-paint you should apply the right insulator.